Hi, all student nurses there….
Diabetes and insulin therapy are much common these days. Global prevalence of diabetes is increasing day by day and it is the major cause of blindness, kidney failures, heart attacks, stroke, and lower limb amputation.
Insulin is the drug most of the patients with Type 1 diabetes rely on.
What is Insulin?
Insulin is a hormone, secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. It helps to regulate blood glucose level in the body
Functions of insulin
1)Helps in the utilization of the carbohydrates by the body for glucose production.( gluconeogenesis)
2) Helps in the storage of glucose
How it acts
- Insulin and Blood Sugar Levels
Increased levels of blood sugar stimulate the secretion of insulin from islets of Langerhans. A sugar level >3.9 mmol/L or 70 mg/dl enhance the production of insulin.
Once insulin is secreted, it binds to the cells of liver, muscles, and fats and signals them to absorb glucose.
Generally speaking, insulin is a KEY that UNLOCKS THE CELLS for the glucose to enter into. Cells use the glucose for the energy.
- Insulin and Glucose Storage
When the blood glucose level is more than enough, insulin converts it into glycogen and is stored in the liver. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. In the fat cells, glucose is stored as triglycerides.
On the other hand, insulin also helps in the release of glucose from the stored glucagon and triglycerides when needed. In case of activities which require much energy or in between meals when the sugar level I low, insulin releases glucose into the bloodstream.
What happens if there is no insulin
If enough insulin is not produced naturally, or if the body cells become resistant to effects of insulin, one can develop symptoms of hyperglycemia or diabetes, which once left untreated, can result in many complications and require long-term treatment.
Regarding diabetes and it’s treatment I will share with you next time. Please tell me your suggestions.